- Created on Wednesday, 09 July 2008 14:11
"At no point do the basic texts of Islam enjoin terrorism and murder. At no point do they even consider the random slaughter of uninvolved bystanders." -Bernard Lewis in "License to Kill" (1998). Still there are extremist islamists and non-Muslim scolars and opinion makers who claim that terrorism can be legitimated with reference to the Qur'an.
Osama Bin-laden et. al., "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders" February 23, 1998
Fatwa issued by World Islamic Front under the leadership of Bin-Laden, al-Zawahiri, Faslur Rahman et. al. "The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies -- civilians and military -- is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy mosque [Mecca] from their grip, and in order for their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim. This is in accordance with the words of Almighty Allah, "and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together," and "fight them until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah." Download. See explanation and comment by Bernard Lewis in Foreign Affairs, Nov 1998 p14(1) "License To Kill. Usama bin Ladin’s Declaration of Jihad". Download.
David Bukay, "The Religious Foundations of Suicide Bombings. Islamist Ideology". Middle East Quarterly Fall 2006, pp. 27-36.
Contemporary Islamist Ideology Authorizing Genocidal Murder - MEMRI special report no. 25 - Jan 27, 2004.
Contemporary Islamism, however, holds that Islam is now under attack, and therefore Jihad is now a war of defense, and as such has become not only a collective duty but an individual duty without restrictions or limitations. That is, to the Islamists, Jihad is a total, all-encompassing duty to be carried out by all Muslims – men and women, young and old. All infidels, without exception, are to be fought and annihilated, and no weapons or types of warfare are barred. Furthermore, according to them, current Muslim rulers allied with the West are considered apostates and infidels. This article examines contemporary Islamist sources advocating this approach to non-Muslims Download.
Dale C. Eickheimer, "Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism" Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85-98
"As David F. Forte states “We must not fail . . . to distinguish between the homicidal revolutionaries like bin Laden and mainstream Muslim believers.”" ... "Qutbism refers to the writings of Sayyid Qutb and other Islamic theoreticians, e.g., Abul Ala Maududi and Hassan al Banna, that provide the intellectual rationale underpinning Islamic-Fascism. Qutbism is not a structured body of thought from any single person (despite its name), source, time, or sect; rather it is a fusion of puritanical and intolerant Islamic orientations that include elements from both the Sunni and Shia sects of Islam that have been combined with broader Islamist goals and methodologies. Qutbism integrates the Islamist teachings of Maududi and al Banna with the arguments of Sayyid Qutb to justify armed jihad in the advance of Islam, and other violent methods utilized by twentieth century militants. Qutbism advocates violence and justifies terrorism against non-Muslims and apostates in an effort to bring about the reign of God. Others, i.e., Ayman Al-Zawahiri, Abdullah Azzam, and Osama bin Laden built terrorist organizations based on the principles of Qutbism and turned the ideology of Islamic-Fascism into a global action plan." Download.
John L. Esposito, "Legitmate, illegitimate use of violence" - Newsweek.Washingtonpost.com 24/07/07
"The Qur’an does not advocate or condone illegitimate violence or terrorism. The Islamic tradition places extensive limits on the use of violence and rejects terrorism, hijackings, and hostage taking. However, Muslims are permitted, indeed at times required to defend their religion, their families, and the Islamic community from aggression." Download.
Alan, Godlas, "Jihad, War, Terrorism, and Peace in Islam"
This site contains key on-line litterature on the following topics: Jihad and Violence in Islam, Muslim and Arab Responses to 9/11 and Islamic Criticism of Terrorism, Afghanistan and Muslim Criticism of the Taliban, Bin Laden and His Muslim Critics, Interreligious, Scholarly, Journalistic, and American Governmental Responses to 9/11 and Beyond, Islam and Peace, Al-Qaida, Muslim Terrorists, and Islamic Terrorist Organizations, Global Terrorist Websites, Jihad Videos and Tapes, Understanding Islamic Terrorism and Terrorist Groups. Download.
Otto Helwig, "Terrorism and Islam"
Dr. Helweg, who studied Islam, classical Arabic, and the Middle Eastern culture while living in the Middle East for more than a decade, writes a straightforward article regarding the mindset of Muslims, particularly the terrorists among them. First, he describes the sharp differences in the worldview and culture of the West and Middle East, then briefly explains the effect that the Qur'an and other sacred writings have on radical Muslims. He disputes the characterization of Islam as a peaceful religion and concludes that attempts to stamp out the evil of terrorism are naive. Download.
Islamic Statements Against Terrorism
James Turner Johnson, "Jihad and Just War" - www.firstthings.com 2002
Johnson contrasts the mainstream Islamic doctrine of limited war with the radically unlimited jihad of Osama bin Laden, which expands the doctrine of emergency warfare to include the entire West (along with Israel) and makes no distinction as to targets or combatants. Bin Laden's jihad also seeks overthrow of contemporary Muslim states and their mainstream views. Download.
Warren F. Larson, "Islam and Terrorism: A Closer Look" - Evangelical Missions Quarterly 2001.
A renowned Islam scholar and former missionary to Pakistan, Dr. Larson traces the life story and global influence of one of Islam's foremost militant idealogues, Syed Qutb. He then sets forth Islam's sources for authority, including the Qur'an and Hadith, Muslim views on peace, war and other religions, its cultural hegemony and global agenda. He ends with an appeal to a humble, hopeful biblical response by Christians. Download.
Haim Malka, "Must Innocents Die? The Islamic Debate over Suicide Attacks." Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2003.
Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism
Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islam and the Question of Violence" - Al-Serat Vol. XIII, No. 2
"Islam condones the use of force only to the extent of opposing that centripetal tendency which turns man against what he is in his inner reality. The use of force can only be condoned in the sense of undoing the violation of our own nature and the chaos which has resulted from the loss of equilibrium. But such a use of force is not in reality violence as usually understood. It is the exertion of human will and effort in the direction of conforming to the Will of God and in surrendering the human will to the divine." Download.
Question: What does the Qur’an say about terrorism? About.com: Islam
Roger A. Pape, "The Strategic Logic of Suide Terrorism" - American Political Science Review 93.3 2003
"U.S. Muslim Religious Council Issues Fatwa Against Terrorism" - July 28, 2005
Wikipedia, Islamic terrorism